Introduction to the Physics of Semiconductor Devices

Production of Silicon

  1. reduction of quartz sand with carbon at 2200K, SiO2C→Si+CO2; "metallurgical silicon"
  2. further purification via HSiCl3 → "electronic grade silicon"
  3. fabrication of single crystals pillars (ingots) in the Czochralski Process
    → purity: 99.999999999%
    → length: up to 2m
    → diameter: up to 450mm (2010)

  4. Czochralski process

  5. cutting the ingot into wafers